Photograph of the Santa Cruz River about 9 miles downstream (north) of Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (photo by Hans Huth).
At the beginning of Fiscal year 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) joined forces with the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) U.S.- Mexico Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI) and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, to develop an ecosystem-services-based online-decision-support tool—called the Santa Cruz watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). The broad objective of this study is to develop a reliable and useful online model-based scenarios evaluation framework for the binational Santa Cruz Watershed. The SCWEPM is designed to structure and visualize various scenarios of the regional impacts on ecosystem services from future land use change, climate change and potential changes to engineered discharge from wastewater treatment plants.
The Santa Cruz Watershed (SCW) administration and ownership is divided by four governing Nations: the Tohono O’odham Nation, the Pascua Yaqui Tribe, Mexico, and the United States (fig. 1). Land use management impacts natural processes and shapes the lay of the land. These large and diverse groups of stakeholders share interests in farming, ranching, mining, economic and population growth, industry, and trade as well as essential ecosystem services from the environment. Ecosystem services are the resources and processes that are supplied by the natural environment that benefit humankind. Limited rainfall, reliance on groundwater, high rates of population growth and poverty combine with the complex multi-cultural environment to place unique pressures on ecosystem services in the SCW.
The dryland ecosystem of the Sonoran desert is one of the largest, hottest and diverse deserts in North America. The climate is ideal for many animals and plants that have developed adaptations to the biseasonal rainfall patterns and high temperatures and also attracts humans who enjoy the warm climate, low cost of living, outdoor lifestyle and scenic landscapes. However, deserts are extremely fragile and take a long time to recover from disturbance. According to a climate-change model predictions for the future, the most severely affected areas of the United States is the borderlands region from southern California to west Texas and intensifies even more over northern Mexico.
The SCWEPM can help decision-makers visualize when ecosystem services and their distribution should be regulated across the US-Mexico border in order to enhance quality of life in a sustainable and equitable fashion. The models being coupled and applied within the SCWEPM will be used to evaluate relative change, subject to the assumptions and limitations of its component models and its users. Results will demonstrate the effect of land-use and climate changes on the biogeochemical cycles, water quality, long-term chemical transport, and the riparian ecosystem for human well-being and health that can be used to support binational policy makers. The SCWEPM addresses each jurisdiction of land equally and can be used to visualize shared watersheds with a diverse group of stakeholders and provide a basis for adaptive management of water resources (Norman et al. 2010).
The Ecosystem Portfolio Model portrays the three "pillars" of sustainability as sub-models: the Ecological-Value Submodel (EVM), the Human- Well-Being Submodel (HWB), and the Market Land-Price Submodel (MLP), that can be analyzed under various scenarios (Labiosa et al. 2009).
The SLEUTH urban growth model was applied to the Santa Cruz Watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios and potential impacts to ecosystem services for the year 2050. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images, that was developed for this purpose (Villarreal et al. 2011) Three specific scenarios are designed to simulate changing spatial patterns of land-use under different conditions, including (i.) a Current Trends analysis of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii.) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii.) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The alternative futures explore different impervious surfaces patterns, different levels and patterns of habitat protection and land-use, and different economic incentives to help guide planning for the future. Model assumptions, implementation methodology, and results are presented in a paper recently submitted (Norman et al. 2012).
The Ecological-Value Submodel (EVM) is the first of three components to be included in the SCWEPM. We are developing a reliable model to analyze flow and water-quality for the semiarid 9,100 km2 SCW. In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated only at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Yet, since the main reach of the SCW—like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, is discontinuous for most of the year except in a few large flood events, the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Therefore, calibration is required in multiple locations to best portray watershed conditions and increase the reliability of predictions. We describe the calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) at all available (seven) monitoring stations to improve model performance and reliability in this arid-land watershed in a paper recently submitted (Niraula et al. 2012). With further calibration of model for water quality parameters, the results of this research will be used to examine the flow and transport of contaminants in the Santa Cruz watershed and evaluate impacts of future scenarios of land use and climate change on ecosystem services.
We assessed the impacts of two of the future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation (WHR) models and a high resolution binational vegetation map we published last year (Wallace et al. 2011)— based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. We validated the results with data from local National Park Service biological inventories. The total number of potential terrestrial vertebrates identified using WHR models across all vegetation and land cover types was 451, with Desert Riparian Shrubland, Woodland, and Forest supporting the greatest total number (267) of species, and greatest number of avian (171) species. Apacherian-Chihuahuan Piedmont Semi-Desert Grassland supports 75 of 93 total mammal species and 46 of 74 total herpetofauna. Based on Current Trends growth trajectories, 45% of existing riparian woodland, and 34% of semi-desert grasslands will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, riparian woodland and semi-desert grassland would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Differences in growth patterns of the two models suggest a greater trade-off of biodiversity loss at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would likely result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat due to increased groundwater use. The trade-off between riparian and grassland habitat loss with the Megalopolis vs. Current Trends scenarios presents a conundrum for conservationists and urban planners, where conservation approaches that focus on purchasing and conserving undeveloped grasslands as habitat and habitat linkages may have unintended consequences for species that rely on riparian corridors. We just submitted a paper for publication describing the results of this effort (Villarreal et al. 2012).
The Human- Well-Being Submodel (HWB) is also being developed. The HWB submodel uses data and models to evaluate a set of human well-being indicators and metrics of interest to the public, land-use planners, and stakeholders. We developed a Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), using determinants from binational census and neighborhood data that describe levels of education, access to resources, migratory status, housing, and number of dependents, to provide a simplified snapshot of the region’s populace that can be used in binational planning efforts (Norman et al. 2012b)
The Market Land-Price Submodel (MLP) evaluates land-price as a function of LULC patterns and other predictor variables. The MLP is based on hedonic-pricing functions, which describe each land parcel’s price in terms of its particular characteristics (for example, parcel size and zoning), as well as amenities and disamenities related to location. We are working on a hedonic analysis of residential property values using Census Block Group data, geo-referenced environmental explanatory variables, and accounting for spatial autocorrelation, lags, and/or heterogeneity in the data (Arora, Frisvold, and Norman 2012). While the MLP can be used to predict changes in price due to changes in locational characteristics, the predictions reflect "current market" prices. To adapt land-price predictions for future scenarios we hope to develop relative price indices that use the hedonic predictions as inputs and can be used as indicators of change in land value between scenarios. The resulting hedonics model will be incorporated into the SCWEPM to allow for scenario adaptations.
We currently have a prototype for the SCWEPM online but it needs to be further developed (Fig. 2).
Figure 2. Screen grab of SCWEPM Prototype online (developed by Dave Strong).
Predicted climate change information for the SCW has been derived from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections and will be used as input to simulate impacts of this change on the landscape and generate scenarios of climate change sensitivity across the watershed.
More modeling needs to be done for hydrology scenarios (water quality and tracking contaminants, potential changes in wastewater, quantifying surface activities impacts to groundwater), biodiversity scenarios, and the hedonics models need to be completed (the spatial regression analysis of property values).
The SCWEPM web interface will allow the user to explore individual value maps for each unique criterion or, after applying user-chosen multi-criteria weights, as an aggregated value map to holistically compare potential land use patterns.
We are developing the spatially-explicit criteria, using the described models and data sources to create multi-attribute utility functions based on stakeholder and public value (Norman, Labiosa, and Weber, forthcoming). Public surveys in neighborhoods and colonias in the SCW have been initiated to determine indicators. The relative importance between the different criteria can also be adjusted by the user through user-assigned weights for each criterion and subcriterion. The following relevant performance criteria will portray that rank and can fluctuate depending on which scenario is chosen, to feed in to the potential ecosystem service value score:
- Biodiversity Potential Criterion
- Potentially Important Focal Species Criterion
- Rare & Unique Habitats Criterion
- Water Quality Buffer Criterion
- Water Quantity Potential Criterion
- Contaminants Potential Criterion
- Human Health Criterion
- Landscape Patterns and Fragmentation Criterion
- Property Value Criterion
- Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Criterion
- Population Density Criterion
Public surveys in neighborhoods and colonias in the SCW are being initiated by Matt Weber at the EPA, to determine indicators. Photos taken of the Santa Cruz River at four different locations, (i.) Tumacacori, (ii.)North of Amado, (iii.) Near W. St. Mary's Rd., and (iv.) Near Camino del Cerro are being used in preliminary qualitative research (Click here for PDF of photos and location map). (Download Abobe Reader) . Using the cumulative results, users can make inferences to the past and to the future that could help managers make more informed decisions.
The SCWEPM will provide a map-based multi-criteria evaluation tool that stakeholders can use to debate tradeoffs at multiple scales within a participatory process. It will allow users to evaluate and compare potential land use patterns in a variety of ways. The EPM prototypes being developed at South Florida and the Puget Sound demonstrate innovative and advanced technology (Labiosa et al. 2009). Our synthesis across disciplines of the effects of climate and land-use changes on the water resources that sustain arid-land ecosystem services will have broad impacts and direct application to regional problem-solving, and will help develop a binational understanding of the tradeoffs between hydro-climatology and arid-land ecosystem services. Decision-makers and politicians need tools to inform their answers about environmental impacts, since they are regularly faced with questions about who gains, who pays, and who loses as a result of land-use management and policy. The SCWEPM will provide information on how incremental changes in management, precipitation or point-source water inputs can cause threshold changes in ecosystem services. Further, our approach provides a model that can be followed by researchers in other dryland river regions. The competition between the United States and Mexico for ecosystem services has not readily been vetted in this light; thus, the approach may be applicable to other situations that could form International management of ecosystems.
We have received funding from the EPA's Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) and Southwest Ecosystem Services Project (SwESP) as well as the USGS Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program and U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI) for this research. Agencies and partners contributing to this research agenda include USGS (David Strong, Mark Feller, Miguel Villarreal, Cynthia Wallace, James Callegary, Nicholas Paretti, Charles van Riper, Floyd Gray, Rachel Sleeter, Silvia Wilson, Diana Papoulias, and Jean Parcher); US EPA (Matt Weber, Yongping Yuan, Wenming Nie, and John Lin); Arizona State University (Francisco Lara-Valencia); The University of Arizona (George Frisvold, Tom Meixner, Rewati Niraula, Gaurov Arora, Katie Hirschboeck, Sandy Dall’erba, Laura López-Hoffman, Phil Guertin, Francina Dominguez, Amy McCoy, Gladys Amaya, and Chris Scott); Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (Hans Huth and Jose Rodriguez); IMIP (Claudia Gil Anaya); the Sonoran Institute (Emily Brott and Claire Zugmeyer); the National Park Service, Tumacacori National Historical Park (Jeremy Moss and Jason Welborn); The San Xavier District of the Tohono O’Odham Nation (Austin Nunez, and Scott Rogers); Friends of the SCR (Sherry Sass, Jen Parks, Ben Lomeli, and Sofia Grigera); and New Mexico State University (Ken Boykin).
We developed a "Google Group" on June 25, 2009 to encourage our agency and stakeholder collaborators and the public to communicate regularly and provide easily access our research progress. This has established a precedent that has enhanced the infrastructure for research and education, via partnerships. International and local agencies join stakeholders involved in our research efforts, to design and work as participants (see letters of support)—necessary for the development of useful and sustainable research. The Google Group forum, “SCWEPM Folks” is an open group and anyone can join. Currently, we have over 90 members. Join our Google Group for more current information, post questions/discussions, and to interact with scientists or stakeholders: http://groups.google.com/group/scwepm-folks?hl=en
Formal communications of the research team consists of conference calls and face to face meetings. SCWEPM researchers participate in the Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day (
and the U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Program, Border 2012 (or Border 2020) Task Forces of the Arizona/Sonora Regional Workgroup (
http://www.epa.gov/usmexicoborder/regional/workgroup-az.html ) for both the Water Task and the Air/Environmental Health Task Force Sessions, to share research results and develop valuable research agendas. These interactions are intended to be bi-directional, such that the communications allow us to disseminate the project results as well as providing important feedback that ground the research activities in the water management realm. Interactions with the wider scientific community are extended to conferences, journal articles, and regular presentation at meetings:
Labiosa, William B., Bernknopf, Richard, Hearn, Paul, Hogan, Dianna, Strong, David, Pearlstine, Leonard, Mathie, Amy M., Wein, Anne M., Gillen, Kevin, and Wachter, Susan, 2009, The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model; a map-based multicriteria ecological, economic, and community land-use planning tool: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5181, 41 p.
Niraula, Rewati, Norman, Laura M., Meixner, Thomas, and Callegary, James, 2012 In Press, Multisite calibration of a semi-arid Santa Cruz watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border using SWAT, Journal of Air, Water and Soil Research.
Norman, Laura M., Felipe Caldeira, James Callegary, Floyd Gray, Mary Kay O’ Rourke, Veronica Meranza, and Saskia Van Rijn. "Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico." Water Quality, Exposure and Health (April 12, 2012). http://www.springerlink.com/content/qvg46056w43j81p2/
Norman, Laura M., Callegary, James, van Riper, Charles, III, and Gray, Floyd, 2010, The Border Environmental Health Initiative; investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3097, 2 p. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3097/].
Norman, Laura M., Feller, Mark and Villarreal, Miguel L., 2012 In Press, Developing Spatially Explicit Footprints of Plausible Land-Use Scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora, Landscape and Urban Planning.
Norman , Laura, Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Labiosa, William, Weber, Matt, McCoy , Amy, Hirschboeck , Katie, Callegary, James, van Riper III, Charles, and Gray, Floyd, 2010, Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play: Advanced Forum for Sustainability Development. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/2/7/2044/
Norman, Laura M., Miguel L. Villarreal, Francisco Lara-Valencia, Yongping Yuan, Wenming Nie, Sylvia Wilson, Gladys Amaya, and Rachel Sleeter. 2012. "Mapping Socio-environmentally Vulnerable Populations Access and Exposure to Ecosystem Services at the U.S.–Mexico Borderlands." Applied Geography 34, no. 0 (May): 413–424. [doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.01.006]
Villarreal, Miguel L., Gass, Leila, Childs, Jack L., Norman, Laura M., Sankey, Joel B., and Wallace, Cynthia S.A., 2012 In Review, Examining wildlife responses to phenology and wildfire using a landscape-scale camera trap network. In Proceedings of the Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Merging Science and Management in a Rapidly Changing World, May 1-5, Tucson, AZ
Villarreal, Miguel L., Laura M. Norman, Cynthia S.A. Wallace, and Charles van Riper. 2011, "A Multitemporal (1979-2009) Land-Use/Land-Cover Dataset of the Binational Santa Cruz Watershed." U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1131: 26.
Villarreal, M.L., L.M. Norman, R.H. Webb, D.E. Boyer and R.M. Turner. 2011. Unravelling long-term vegetation change patterns in a binational watershed using multitemporal land cover data and historical repeat photography. Proceedings of MULTITEMP 2011, 6th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images. Bruzzone, L. and F. Bovolo (Eds.). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, IEEE Xplore, p. 101-104. [10.1109/Multi-Temp.2011.6005058].
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, Laura M., Boykin, Kenneth G., and Wallace, Cynthia S.A. 2012 In Review, Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: assessing future growth scenarios for a North American transnational trade corridor, submitted to International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management.
Villarreal, M.L., Norman, L.M., and W.B. Labiosa. 2012 In Review, "Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool: The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model", 6th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software - iEMSs 2012, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty, Leipzig Germany, 1-5 July.
Wallace, Cynthia S.A., Miguel L. Villarreal, and Laura M. Norman. 2011. "Development of a High-Resolution Binational Vegetation Map of the Santa Cruz River Riparian Corridor and Surrounding Watershed, Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico." U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1143: 22. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1143/
Amaya, Gladys C., Norman, Laura M., and Frisvold, George, 2011, Measuring the Impacts of Natural Amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on Housing Values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using Spatially-Weighted Hedonic Modeling, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2011, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/component/docman/doc_download/997-amaya-scrrd-2011-presentation.html)
Arora, Gaurav, Frisvold, George, and Norman, Laura M., 2012, Hedonic Study at the Santa Cruz Watershed, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2012, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/library/recoreading/doc_download/1142-arora-scrrd-2012-presentation.html)
Caldeira, Felipe, Norman, Laura M., Callegary, James, and Gray, Floyd, 2011, Nogales, Sonora, Mexico: Is there something in the Water?, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2011, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/component/docman/doc_download/999-caldeira-scrrd-2011-presentation.html)
Callegary, J., Paretti, N., Gray, F., Norman, L.M., Beisner, K., Eddleman, K., Matti, L., Papoulias, D., van Riper III, C., Bell, J.R., McAndrew, R., Lincicome, A., Brusseau, M., Alvarez, D., Scott, C., Vandervoet, P., and Megdal, S., 2011, Linking hydrology, geology, chemistry, and biology in the Upper Santa Cruz River Basin, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2011, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/component/docman/doc_download/1000-callegary-scrrd-2011-presentation.html)
Callegary, James, Gray, Floyd, Paretti, Nicholas, Norman, Laura, Withers, Kyle, Vandervoet, Prescott, McAndrew, Rose, Scott, Christopher, Van Riper, Charles, Megdal, Sharon, and Prichard, Andrea, 2010, Physical and Biological Science to Study Interactions among Water, Environmental, and Human Health in the Transboundary Upper Santa Cruz Basin, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2010, Tucson, Ariz. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/component/docman/doc_download/890-callegary-scrrd-presentation2010.html)
Grigera, Sofia, and Norman, Laura M., 2011, Health and Lifestyle of Children Living in the Santa Cruz Watershed, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2011, Tucson, Arizona. (
Grigera, Sofia, Parks, Jen, O'Rourke, Mary Kay, and Norman, Laura M., 2012, Investigating Water Quality in Private Domestic Wells in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Merging Science and Management in a Rapidly Changing World, May 1-5, Tucson, AZ and Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2012, Tucson, Arizona. (POSTER). http://sonoraninstitute.org/library/recoreading/doc_download/1156-grigera-scrrd-2012-poster.html
Hall, Robert K., Francis-Begay, Juanita, Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Norman, Laura M., Holler, F. Eric, Lin, John, Weber, Matt and Hawkins, R.H., 2010, A pilot project to study ecosystem services on tribal land [abs.]: ACES, A Conference on Ecosystem Services, Dec., 2010, Phoenix, AZ.
Labiosa, W., L. Norman, N. Tallent-Halsell, K. Hirschboeck, M. Weber, A. McCoy, J. Callegary, C. Wallace, M. Villarreal, and H. Huth. 2010. Ecosystem Services Assessments under Climate Change and Urban Growth Scenarios; the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (Oral). 3rd Annual USGS Modeling Conference. June, Denver, CO.
Nie, Wenming, Yuan, Yongping, Norman, Laura M., Tallent-Halsell, Nita and Callegary, James, 2010, Assessing climate change impacts on surface water availability in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed, [abs.], Arizona Hydrological Society, Sept 1-4, Tucson, Ariz.
Nie, Wenming, Yuan, Yongping, Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Norman, Laura M., Jackson, Michael, and Erickson, Caroline, 2010, Assessing Surface Water Availability in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed, 65th International Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) Annual Conference, July 18-21, 2010, St. Louis, Missouri. (POSTER)
Niraula, Rewati, Meixner, Thomas, and Norman, Laura M., 2011, A multi-gage calibration approach for modeling a semiarid Santa Cruz watershed in Arizona-Mexico border, accepted for presentation at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting 2011, December 5-9, San Francisco, CA. (POSTER).
Niraula, Rewati, Meixner, Thomas, and Norman, Laura M., 2012, Hydrological Modeling of a Semi-arid Santa Cruz Basin, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2012, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/library/recoreading/doc_download/1151-niraula-scrrd-2012-presentation.html)
Norman, Laura M., 2011, How an Ecosystem Services Assessment Informs Land and Natural Resource Decisions, In Proceedings of Tamarisk Coalition's 2011 Science Meeting, Feb. 16-17, 2011, Tucson, AZ.
Norman, Laura M., and Labiosa, Bill, 2012, The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM); Progress and Future, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2012, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/library/recoreading/doc_download/1161-norman-scrrd-2012-presentation.html)
Norman, Laura M., Labiosa, W., Francis-Begay, Juanita, and Gil Anaya, Claudia, 2010, Ecosystem Services: the SCWEPM Bridge across Transboundary and Environmental Justice Divides [abs.]: ACES, A Conference on Ecosystem Services, Dec., 2010, Phoenix, AZ. http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/aces10/Presentations/Additional%20ppts%20to%20pdf/Wednesday-NEW/0155%20L%20Norman-Wed-Plenary-pm.pdf
Norman , Laura, Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Labiosa, William, Hirschboeck, Katie, Weber, Matt, McCoy, Amy, Callegary, James, Gray, Floyd, Huth Hans, van Riper III, Charles, Lara-Valencia, Francisco, and Marlow, Joe, 2009, Ecosystem Services Analysis of Climate Change and Urban Growth; The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) [abs.]: 2009 Phenology Research and Observations of Southwest Ecosystems (PROSE) Symposium, October 2nd, 2009, Tucson, AZ.
Norman, Laura M., Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Labiosa, William, Villarreal, Miguel, Callegary, James, Weber, Matt, McCoy, Amy, Guertin, D. Phillip, Hirshboeck, Katie, Cynthia Wallace, Cynthia, Scott, Chris, and Lopez-Hoffman, Laura, 2010, Ecosystem services, binational water management, and decision support in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), Global Land Project (GLP) 2010 Open Science Meeting (GLP OSM), October 17-19, 2010, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
Paretti, Nicholas, Callegary, James, Gray, Floyd, Beisner, Kimberly, Norman, Laura, and Van Riper, Charles, 2010, Occurrence, Fate, and Bioaccumulation of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants from Multiple Sources in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed, [abs.], Arizona Hydrological Society, Sept 1-4, Tucson, Ariz.
Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Norman, Laura M., Holler, Eric, Weber, Matt, and Francis-Begay, Juanita, 2010, Ecosystem Services of Riparia: a Case Study of Ground-Water Recharge of Arroyos on Tribal Lands, [abs.], Arizona Hydrological Society, Sept 1-4, Tucson, Ariz.
Tallent-Halsell, Nita, Norman, Laura M., Labiosa, William, Hall, Robert K., Erickson, Caroline, 2010, Holistically evaluating the impact of water and land use management in the Santa Cruz watershed, Celebrating the Sonoran Desert a tri-national symposium, March 16 - 18, 2010, Ajo, Ariz.
Villarreal, Miguel L., Gass, Leila, Childs, Jack L., Norman, Laura M., Sankey, Joel B., and Wallace, Cynthia S.A., 2012, Examining wildlife responses to phenology and wildfire using a landscape-scale camera trap network. Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Merging Science and Management in a Rapidly Changing World, May 1-5, Tucson, AZ (POSTER).
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, Laura M., Boyer, Diane, Webb, Robert H., and van Riper III, Charles, 2011, Development of a landscape change narrative for a semi-arid watershed using historical repeat ground photography and multi-temporal land cover data [abs.]: The Association of American Geographers (AAG), 2011 Annual Meeting, Seattle, Wash. April 10-13, 2011.
Villarreal, M.L., Norman, L.M., and W.B. Labiosa. 2012. "Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool: The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model", Session "B1. Modelling social and environmental determinants of human and ecosystem health". 6th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software - iEMSs 2012, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty, Leipzig Germany, 1-5 July.
Villarreal, M.L., Norman, L.M., C.S.A. Wallace, and K.G. Boykin, K.G. Land use matters: Private and public land stewardship efforts moderate the effects of drought and resource consumption on watershed habitat loss. In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher’s Day, March 29, 2012, Tucson, Arizona. (POSTER). http://sonoraninstitute.org/library/recoreading/doc_download/1163-villarreal-scrrd-2012-poster.html
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, Laura M., Wallace, Cynthia S.A, and Boykin, Kenneth G., 2012, Developing Ecologically-Based Conservation Targets Under Global Change: The 2nd Emerging Issues Conference of the Ecological Society of America (ESA), Shepherdstown, WV, February 27 - March 1.
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, Laura M., Wallace, Cynthia S.A., and Boykin, Kenneth G., 2011, Historical determinants of past and current biodiversity patterns and their implications for conservation under future climate change, accepted for presentation at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting 2011, December 5-9, San Francisco, CA. (POSTER).
Villarreal, Miguel L., Norman, Laura M., Webb, Robert H. and Boyer, Diane E., 2011, Unravelling Long-term Landscape Change in a Binational Watershed Using Multitemporal Land Cover Data and Historical Repeat Photography: Implications for Future Management Practices [abs.]: MULTITEMP 2011, 6th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images, Trento, Italy, 12-14 July.
Villarreal, Miguel, Norman, Laura M., Wallace, Cynthia S.A., and Boykin, Kenneth G., 2012, Evaluating long-term biodiversity changes across a heterogeneous land use mosaic, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, New York, New York, 24–28 February.
Wallace, Cynthia, S.A., Villarreal, Miguel L., and Norman, Laura M., 2011, Development of landscape-scale geospatial data sets describing the vegetation and land use of the binational Santa Cruz watershed, In Proceedings of Santa Cruz River Researcher's Day, March 29, 2011, Tucson, Arizona. (http://sonoraninstitute.org/component/docman/doc_download/1014-wallace-and-villarreal-scrrd-2011-presentation.html)
Weber, Matt, Ringold, Paul, Thurston, Hale, Norman, Laura, Tallent-Halsell, Nita and Labiosa, William, 2010, Using Focus Groups to Understand Ecosystem Services of an Impacted Southwestern River [abs.]: ACES, A Conference on Ecosystem Services, Dec., 2010, Phoenix, AZ. http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/aces10/Presentations/Thursday/C/AM/Yes/0845%20MattWeber.pdf
Information about the USGS Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI) and the Santa Cruz Watershed
Information about the USGS Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM)
Information about the US EPA Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP)